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What is Cancer?

Cancer is the development or uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body which divide uncontrollably. These diseased have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body cells. They spread via lymph system and blood in our body.

Different types of cancer exist as per type of cells or organs from where they originates. Some are below mentioned:-

Sarocma

This cancer begins in fat,blood vessels,cartilage,bone,muscles or any other supportive or connective tissue outside bone marrow.

Leukemia

This cancer originates in bone marrow.

Lymphoma

The cancer that starts in lymphatic system of the body. Lymphatic system is a network of glands and vessels that help fight against infection.

Myeloma

Cancer that arises in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell.

Causes of Cancer

Cancer caused by changes (mutation) to the DNA within cells. DNA inside the cell is group of large number of individuals genes,which contain set of individual genes. Each contain a set of instructions for cell functioning,as well as how to divide and grow.Errors causes abnormal function of cells and led them to cancerous.

Symptoms

Some general signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific.

  • Fatigue
  • Colour change of skin, yellowing, darkening or rednes, unhealed sores, or changes to existing moles.
  • Lumps appears under the skin
  • Bowel or bladder habit changes
  • Persistent cough, breathing problems or hoarseness.
  • Persistent indigestion, discomfort, muscle or joint pain, fever or night sweats.

Treatment

Surgery

Procedure in which surgeon remove cancer from body.

Chemotherapy

Treatment or therapy by which drug uses to kill cancer cells.

Radiation therapy

Treatment by which high powered energy beams such as X rays or protons uses to kill cancer cells.

Immunotherapy

It is a biological therapy uses body’s immune system to fight cancer.

Targeted therapy

Treatment that target the changes in cancer cells that help divide, grow and spread.

Hormone Therapy

Treatment which slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers, Removing those hormones or blocking their effects may cause the cancer cells to stop growing.

Cryoablation

Treatment that kills cancer cells with cold. During this treatment Cyroprobe inserted through skin or directly into the cancerous tumour.

Bone Marrow Transplant

A treatment that replaces the unhealthy marrow with a healthy one is called Bone marrow transplant.

What is Bone Marrow?

A soft, spongy tissue inside the bones that makes blood stem cells. These cells turns into blood cells including WBC, RBC and Platelet.

How does transplant work?

Before transplant patient need Chemotherapy with or without radiation to destroy the diseased cells and marrow, then healthy cells are given. The healthy cells circulate into bloodstream through Intravenous(IV) or tube. The cells find their way into marrow where they grow and start producing RBC, WBC and Platelets.

3 Common types of Bone Marrow Transplant.

Autologous transplant

Patient own blood forming cells are collected,frozen and stored. After Chemotherapy or radiation given back to patient.

The cells are collected by two ways;-

  • Peripheral Blood Stem Cells(PBSC)- Cells are collected from bloodstream through veins. This process is called Aspheresis.
  • Bone marrow collection:- Cells are collected from the Pelvic(Hip) bone during surgery.

Allogeneic Transplant

If patient have allogeneic transplant,then patient get healthy blood forming cells donated by someone else. Patient get donated blood forming cells from umbilical cord blood.

Successful transplant comes when Human Leukocyte antigen(HLA) type closely matches with donor. Close matches of HLA between patient and donor helps lower the risk of problems after transplant. HLA markers matching is much more complex than matching blood types.

Haploidentical Transplant

it’s a type of allogeneic transplant where donor matches exactly half of patient HLA. Haploidentical or half matched donor is usually patient’s mother, father or child