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Liver is an accessory digestive gland or organ located in upper right abdomen in humans. It helps in detoxification of various metabolites, protein synthesis and produce biochemicals which helps in digestion on foods. It also helps in regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood clells and the production of hormones.

Types of liver transplants:

Deceased donor transplants: Clinical died patient’s liver is used for transplantation. Donated liver can be used for two persons on same time, large part for adults and smaller part for childs.

Living donor transplants: When healthy person give his/her half part of liver to his/her own family member.

Signs and symptoms of liver failure

  • Jaundice
  • fatigue without physical exercise
  • weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • Abdominal sweeling
  • weight & muscle loss
  • itching
  • bruising or bleeding easily because blood does not clot
  • bleeding in the stomach
  • blood while vomiting
  • white or chalky stool

Diagnosis for Liver Transplant

Acute liver failure– sudden onset of liver failure due to following reasons;

  • viral hepatitis,
  • drug-induced
  • injury / clots in vessel supplying blood to liver
  • infection.

Chronic Liver failure: due to following factors

  • Alcoholic liver disease
  • Cancer
  • Cirrhosis , fatty liver disease
  • Biliary atresia common reason in children
  • Auto immune , genetic disorders

Tests Required for Liver Transplant

  • Doppler ultrasound to examine the flow of blood is open to liver
  • PFT(pulmonary functioning test)-lungs ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • ECG-to evaluate the patient’s heart.
  • CT Scan-to generate pictures of the liver and showing its shape and size.
  • Blood tests examine blood type, biochemical status of blood, PT INR  and to gauge liver function. Viral marker and Hepatitis tests are also included.

Living donor liver transplants : is an option for those patients with end-stage liver disease. In this procedure, segment of liver from a healthy living donor and implanting it into a recipient. Both the donor and recipient liver segments will grow to normal size in a few weeks.

The donor, who may be a blood relative, spouse. Blood type and body size are critical factors in determining an appropriate donor.

Guidelines for Liver Transplant

Donor should be close relative and donating liver by it’s own wish.

Prefered age fpr donor is 18-45 years. He/she should be fit, strong and have a matching or compatible blood group:

Patient blood groupMatching donor groups
A+ or A-A+/ A- /O+ / O-
B+ or B-B+ / B- / O+ / O-
AB+ or AB -Any blood group acceptable
O+ or O-O+ / O

Generally the donor’s right half of the liver is donated during an adult – to – adult liver transplant.