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  • Overview
  • Hernia- is a protrusion of an organ from the wall of the cavity of the organ.
  • Hiatus is the opening in the diaphragm-the muscular wall that splits the chest cavity from the abdomen.Hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrude in to the chest via the hiatal opening.

Hiatal Hernias can be classified in to two types:

Sliding hiatus hernia: It is the sliding of stomach along with the small part of oesophagus into the chest through hiatus.

Paraesophageal Hernia: in which the section of the stomach press through the hiatus protruding it adjacent to the oesophagus. It is dangerous as it can make the stomach strangled, viz. shutting off the blood supply to the stomach.

Causes

Exact cause is unknow but possible causes are these:

  • Congenital
  • Increased and intense pressure on the abdomen and adjacent muscles while coughing,straining while bowels, pregnancy, obesity, or while lifting heavy objects.
  • Injury to the area

Treatment options

The following are the option to treat hiatal hernia:

  • Drug therapy
  • To reduce the acid production cimetidine
  • To neutralize acid
  • To stop acid production and healing of oesophagus
  • Surgical interventions

Normally surgery not required but in emergency situation like paraesophageal hernias. In the surgical procedure the surgeon either pulls your stomach down to the original place that makes the hiatus smaller, reconstruct the weak sphincter of oesophagus or remove the hernia sac completely.

This can be done using one of the following procedure:

Thoracotomy: In this surgery is done through a single incision on your chest wall.

Laprotomy: surgery is done through an incision in the abdomen.

Laparoscopic: Surgery is performed using the small camera and surgical tools which are inserted in the abdomen through multiple small incisions. This is the minimally invasive technique.

Piles treatment in India

Overview

Piles are haemorrhoids that have become inflamed. Haemorrhoids are masses, clumps, cushions of tissue in the rectum, the last part of the intestine, commonly known as anus. Haemorrhoids are full of blood vessels, support tissue, muscle and elastic fibres.

Some of the common symptoms of piles are:

  • Loss of blood while passing stools
  • Itchiness, redness or soreness around the anus
  • Pain and mucus discharge while emptying the bowels
  • Feeling of bowel fullness even after defecation
  • Feeling of hard lump around the anus, which is often very painful

Piles can either be in the inside or outside the anus. Internal piles typically are 2 to 4cm above the opening of the anus and are much more common. External piles occur on the outside edge of the anus.

Cause for piles

Following factor that can cause piles:

  • Chronic constipation and excessive straining during passing stools
  • Sitting hard surfaces for long duration
  • lifting heavy objects
  • Pregnancy is one of the factors,because of added weight and pressure on bowels.
  • Hereditary

Treatment options

Following are the other treatment options for treating haemorrhoids.

  • Improving dietary habits. Intake of high fibre diet including vegetables, fruits, cereals and plenty amount of water helps in soft bowel movements with easy and regular motions.
  • Drug therapy and
  • Banding and ligation of haemorrhoids.
  • Surgery

The commonly performed surgical procedures are:

  • Stapler Haemorrhoidectomy- haemorrhoidectomy is the procedure during which the excess tissue that is causing the bleeding is surgically removed. The surgery can be done under local/ spinal or general anaesthesia. Haemorrhoidectomy results in complete removal of piles.
  • Other GI Surgeries